1. As the economic level of a country increases, death rates decline.
2. Later, as the economic level continues to increase, fertility rates decline.
B. Other Factors Influencing Family Size
1. Are children perceived as an economic asset or liability?
a. Are children needed for security in one's old age?
b. Do children contribute to the family income?
c. Do children require expenditures of money until they reach adulthood or
2. Is infant and childhood mortality high?
a. If you have a low expectation that a particular child will survive to
adulthood, are you more or less likely to have another child?
b. If you want to raise a child, the overall desire to have children is not
going to end if a child dies. Although you can't replace the dead child, you
can have another child.
3. Is education accessible? Education does two things to fertility rates:
a. While one is in school typically does not begin raising a family.
b. Education increases the number of economic opportunities. One
is not as dependent upon offspring for survival. Children become less of an
economic asset and more of an economic liability as income increases.
4. Is education accessible to all?
a. If education is accessible only to men, then women begin to have
children at an early age.
b. Obtaining education reduces the number of years that a woman has to
bear children. If you are in school until age 22, then it is likely that you will
not have your first child until at least age 23. (In the U.S., the current
average age of first birth is 23.)
c. Access to education increases job/career opportunities for women.
When being a mother is not the only socially acceptable occupation, women
choose to have fewer children.
5. Are contraceptives available?
a. The desire to reduce family size will not be successful if contraceptive are
b. Contraceptives need to be socially acceptable. Women and men have to
agree to their use.
c. Data indicate many people wishing to limit family size cannot due to lack
of contraceptive availability.
Fig. 7.3 There is a weak correlation between income and lower total fertility. Factors that affect fertility more directly are health care, education for women, and the availability of contraceptive information and services.
Fig. 7 4 In developing countries-especially Africa-women do most of the work relating to care and maintenance of the family, including heavy farming tasks.
Fig. 7.6 More than any other single factor, lower fertility rates are correlated with the percent of the population using contraceptives.
Fig. 7.7 Poverty, environmental degradation, and high fertility rates become locked in a self-perpetuating vicious cycle.
Fig. 7.8 In developed countries, the decrease in birth rates proceeded soon after and along with the decrease in death rates, so very rapid population growth never occurred.
Fig. 7.8b In developing countries, both birth and death rates remained high until the mid 1900s. Then a steep decline in death rates was caused by the rapid introduction of modern medicine, whereas birth rates remained high, causing very rapid population growth.
II. Traditional Development Techniques
A. Promoting the Development of Low-Income Countries
1. Emphasizing large development projects.
B. The Results of Large Development Projects
1. Debt Crisis
2. Wealth Concentration
C. World Bank Reform
Fig. 7.10 Loans aimed at promoting development have caught many countries in a debt trap.
III. A New Model for Development
A. Social Modernization: a strategy that does not rely on the economic development of a whole country.
B. Social Modernization Focus: the individual.
C. To succeed with this model one must include
1. Improved access to education, including that of women
2. Improve the health of individuals, especially of women
3. Increased access to and desire for family planning
4. Enhanced income of families so that children are no longer an asset
5. Improved resource management so that people can obtain life necessities
without environmental degradation.
Fig. 7.14 Five main aspects of enhancing the well-being of the poor are mutually supporting and dependent on one another as illustrated.
Fig. 7.15 Countries with low adult female literacy rates have high fertility rates.
Fig. 7.16 Programs that improve the educational and economic status of women have long-term benefits, including lower fertility.