I. Energy Sources and Uses

A. Energy Sources

1. Primary and secondary energy sources
2. Basic production of electricity - boil water to produce steam to turn turbines to
generate electricity
a. What is the local source of electricity?
b. When are the peak loads of electricity and for what purpose?
c. Is electricity a clean energy source? How is electricity produced?

B. Matching Sources to Uses
Fig. 13.2A The development of energy sources has in large part supported the development of civilization.
Fig. 13.2B The development of energy sources has in large part supported the development of civilization.
Fig. 13.4 Note how the mix of primary sources has changed over the years and how the total amount of energy consumed has continued to grow. Note also the skyrocketing increase in use of oil after World War II (1945) as the private car became common.
Fig. 13.6 Electricity is produced commercially by driving generators with a) steam turbines, b) gas turbines and c) water turbines
Fig. 13.6 Electricity is produced commercially by driving generators with a) steam turbines, b) gas turbines and c) water turbines
Fig. 13.7 Electrical demand fluctuates daily, weekly and seasonally. A variety of generator types must be employed to meet baseload, intermediate and peakload electricity needs.
Fig. 13.9 Only major energy pathways are shown in this figure. Note that end uses are connected to primary sources in specific ways. Also note the large percentage of energy
that is wasted as a large portion of the energy consumed is converted to heat and lost.
II. What are Fossil Fuels?

A. How Are Fossil Fuels Formed

B. What Are the Fossil Fuel Reserves?
1. Coal  several (400) hundred years
2. Natural Gas  at least a 50 year supply in the United states
3. Oil  about a decade until supplies peak

C. How Are Supplies Estimated?
1. Educated Guess Based on Geologic Formation.
2. Knowledge of where fossil fuels have been found in the past

D. Why Do Our Estimates of Supply Vary?

III. Oil  The Most Important Fossil Fuel in the American Economy

A. Declining U.S. Reserves and Increasing Importation
1. The Oil Crisis of the 1970s
a. Adjusting to Higher Prices
b. Victims of Our Success

B. Problems of Growing U.S. Dependency on Foreign Oil
1. Costs of Purchase
2. Risk of Supply Disruptions
3. Resource Limitations

C. Environmental Consequences
1. Production: local ecosystems damage possible
2. Transport: oil spills cause local and regional ecosystem damage
3. Use: photochemical smog, particulates, acid precipitation, carbon dioxide
Fig. 13.10 Coal, oil, and natural gas are derived from biomass that was produced many millions of years ago. Deposits are finite and, since formative processes require millions of years, they are nonrenewable.
Fig. 13.11 Maximum production from proven reserves invariably declines, but since there is always some oil remaining, there is no "running out" as such.
Fig. 13.12 U.S. production and demand for oil have fluctuated, as have prices and dependence on imports.
Fig. 13.13The cost (upper curve) fluctuates sharply with delivered price of foreign oil (lower curve) and amount imported.
Fig. 13.14 After the oil crisis of the 1970s, the U.S. became less reliant on foreign oil. But since the mid-1980s, consumption of foreign oil has been rising continuously.
Fig. 13.16 Oil production in a region follows a bell-shaped curve. The evidence indicates that world oil production will peak some time in the next decade.
IV. Coal

A. Large Reserves

B. Fossil Fuel of Choice Before the 1940s
1. Coal was substantially curtailed in the 1940s.

C. Environmental Consequences
1. Production: ecosystem damage, reclamation difficult, acid mine runoff,
mine tailings, erosion, black lung, radon
2. Transport: energy intensive because of weight and number of train cars
3. Use: fossil fuel with largest source of carbon dioxide and greatest quantity of
contaminants, large volume of waste, acid precipitation

Fig. 13.17 With reserves of at least 462 billion metric tons, and a 400 year supply, coal is our most abundant fossil fuel.
Fig. 13.19 This figure shows carbon emissions per capita from fossil fuel burning for selected countries.
Fig. 13.20A Fossil fuel is used to generate electricity at a power station. Additional fuel provides heat and hot water on site.
Fig. 13.20B In cogeneration, heating needs are provided by the heat lost from an on-site power-generating system.
V. Natural Gas

A. Substantial Reserves
B. Possibly a Transition Fuel between fossil fuel and alternative energy sources.

C. Environmental Consequences
1. Production: local ecosystem damage possible if oil or coal is part of the deposit
2. Transport: can be explosive
3. Use: produces the least air pollutants of all the fossil fuels

VI. Sustainable Energy Options

A. Conservation
1. The largest single source of energy available
2. Proven ability to perform
3. Disadvantages
a. Expense borne at the individual level
b. Not appealing to many because it does not involve the building of new power
plants or fancy equipment

B. Development of Non Fossil Fuel Energy Sources